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Found 29 results

  1. I normally don't like to announce things before they are ready, but I can't keep making excuses to those waiting and asking about the next F18A board run. For the last 6 months, while requests for the F18A were trickling in, I have been working on a new version of the F18A, called the MK2, to solve the problems of the current board. At the point were I had enough requests for F18A boards, I was not quite ready with the new MK2 design, so I continued to avoid the direct question of "when do you think the next F18A run will be?" To not have to keep making excuses, and with apologizes to those who have been waiting patiently for a long time, I'm announcing the F18A MK2 now, about a month before it will probably be shipping. I wanted to do this so people would have some real status, and to help my conscience (Vorticon, I spelled it right this time... ). Here is a link to the long version of the story: http://codehackcreate.com/archives/592 I'll do the short and sweet version here. The primary features of the F18A MK2 are: * It is 52mm x 19mm, i.e. the same size as a standard 600-mil 40-pin DIP socket, so no tall-pins, short-pins, adapters, etc. will be necessary for it to fit in the host computers. * Digital video output (TBD, probably DisplayPort). No, there is no VGA, sorry. See my post above for the details on that. Digital video to VGA converters are available if you really need/want VGA. * Host audio injection into the video signal for those who can manage to connect one wire internally to pick up the system's audio and get it to a pin on the MK2. The MK2 will run the same core as the original F18A, and I am still committed to supporting, working on, and fixing the original F18A issues (there is a known problem with the interrupt on some systems, etc.) Future features based on the enhanced MK2 hardware. Access to these features will come with future firmware releases (I don't have time to do it all at once, sorry): * The MK2 has 512KiB of 10ns SRAM, i.e. basically 512KiB of VRAM. This VRAM will be available in a 9938-compatible way, and then some. * The MK2 has extra I/O, including the Mode-1 pin to make it possible to do the 9938-update to the 99/4A in a "TIM" manner. * More than double the FPGA resources than the original F18A. This means more possibilities for new stuff in the VDP. Other non-TI related possibilities: * With simple low-cost adapter boards to re-arrange the wiring, plus a firmware change, the MK2 can be used to replace other VDPs like those in the NES, the Master System, MSX2 (i.e. 9938/59 system), etc. * Stand-alone FPGA-based game system due to the on-board 9900 CPU and 14 extra general-purpose IO pins. * General purpose FPGA devboard. * More simple SPI-based host interface to use the MK2 as a video chip for simple micorcontroller projects, i.e. Arduino, etc. I plan to keep this thread updated with status and to gauge feedback. If all goes well, and if I have not just made a big mistake, I hope to have the MK2 shipping by late July. Ironically this will be exactly 6-years after the original F18A shipped! Some renderings and photos of the current prototype:
  2. While reconciling the Horizon Ramdisk ROS, CFG, and MENU programs I have been learning about GROM access. In all these years, I've never had much interest in GPL or GROM. That changed for a few reasons including the need to understand GROM to reconcile the source code and my curiosity of the magic that Tursi and Gazoo have been conjuring. Since there is no better way to learn (IMHO) about something than to experiment with it, I found the source code for the 80-column Geneve version of BOOT. In its native configuration, it resides in two GPL banks and over-rides the title screen. Gazoo's XB27 suite does something similar with BOOT so I removed most of the Geneve-specific code and started playing around. Gazoo, Atrax, and Omega have been most helpful testing and offering ideas. Although the program is not quite ready for release, I can tell you a few things about it: 1. The menu and all options are presented in 80 columns. F18A and V9938 80-column modes are supported. 2. BwG clock, MBP, Triple Tech, Geneve, and Clulow clocks are supported. Classic99's clock has been tested but not currently implemented due to space constraints. (incorporation will occur with future consolidation of the clock routines). 3. Menu files can be created as executables that are run from the menu itself. Chaining of menus is possible with this feature, allowing an "unlimited" number of selections. 4. The menu program can save itself to the Uber cartridge, similar to the function provided by Gazoo's cartridge code. It can also be saved to disk as BOOT. 5. Ramdisk boot tracking has been added for "DSK*." support, though this may not be necessary. 6. The cartridge finder has been updated to scan up to 16 GROM banks from g>9800 to g>983C. It will also find name headers in the same GROM, such as those found in the Mini Memory cartridge or XB27 suite. The HSGPL exhibits some odd behaviour that we are trying to track down. 7. Re-entry hooks are in place for potential return to the menu from external programs (provided they do not stomp on the menu code). This program is by no means a formal project and I make no promises on how far I will take it. Once a few more tests are completed, I'll share the first release for folks to play with. I haven't settled on a name for the program so for now, it will refer to its roots as the "9640 Menu System".
  3. slinkeey

    TI-99/4A F18A 01

    From the album: Slinkeey's TI-99/4A

    TI-99/4A With VGA Port Using F18A Board #1
  4. A few years ago I was playing around with the Infocom Interpreter, trying to make it compatible with the F18A 80 column mode. In the original 80 column interpreter, the pattern descriptor table was relocated to VRAM bank #1, something that only exists with a V9938 configuration. The attached disk contains a version of the interpreter (ZORKF18A) modified to work within the constraints of the original 16K of VRAM. I have tested the program with both Classic99 and js99er. I do not currently have my F18A system up and running, so it would be helpful if someone would give this a whirl on the real hardware. Thanks to Shift838 for his help gathering the missing details to make this possible. If successful, I will update the other interpreter(s) that are needed for the ported games. (The game files have been validated using the $VERIFY command) ZORK1.dsk
  5. I’m about to buy two F18A’s, one for my “new” TI-99/4A, and one for my 65816 based homebrew computer MARC-2. As I said before, my intention is to write a few little machine language games for both systems simultaneously. So both having the same VDP, surely is a huge advantage. Even more because the F18A is becoming almost a standard in the TI community. Of course I’ve looked on Matthew’s site and on this forum, but I probably overlooked one or two things. MARC-2 has a 3.3V data bus on the CPU side, and a 5V data bus on the RAM side. In between, there is a 3.3V but 5V tolerant CPLD. (XC95288XL) My question is, can I connect the F18A to the 3.3V side? And just out of curiosity, who of you uses the F18A with another computer than the TI-99/4A? *------ Although MARC-2 is 3.3V, it’s not the definitive destination for the F18A. I’m designing a new computer, MARC-3 (My Adorable Retro Computer version 3). It’s practically almost ready, except for the actual build. The main difference is that it will be modular, that is, I’ll use a ground plane, similar to the S-100 bus, and carts for the different parts of the computer system. The second difference will be that it’s running solely on 5V.
  6. I've got two TIs with the same ailment. Black screen on power on with the unending tone. Both occurred in relation to an F18A mod (but I would guess the F18A is not the cause) and I was wondering if anyone had some brilliant advice that could save the day, or advice in avoiding future tragedy. Story Time - Not for the faint of heart, you have been warned. Beginning this year I got the urge to start playing with my TI-99/4A again, my TI had been sitting idle and collecting dust for a few years ever since it's TV went away. It was a stock TI, no expansions apart from the speech; and I was really interested in improving it to explore the community offerings. I read about this fabulous modification called the F18A that completely overhauled the TI's video out. It didn't seem too difficult, so I ordered one as soon as they came available and waited patiently. After a time I received the magic F18A and dutifully opened my TI, removed the VDP, and installed the F18A. I then dremeled some holes for the VGA cable and snaked it to the back of my console. Shield, attach, close up, power on, total victory! Everything seemed to work without complaint and I was playing Tunnels of Doom on my computer monitor the same evening. What followed were some good times, a month or so of vintage happiness. It was not to last. A few weeks ago I powered on my TI so I could continue one of my latest Quests for the King. Black screen, blaring tone. As near as I can tell this was a spontaneous failure as nothing had changed - the system hadn't been opened since the F18A and it had powered on fine the evening before; no new expansions or cable changes. The internet informed me this dreaded error could mean virtually anything wrong with the system. I opened the system and did the only diagnostic steps I could handle. I replaced the original VDP and tried to power on. Nothing. Tried putting the F18A back and powering on. Nothing. I started re-seating the GROMs and clock chip. As I gently pried and lifted the first GROM it suddenly flipped 180 and attacked me, impaling my poor finger. I quickly deduced the reason, I had snapped off two of the pins. Disaster. Nonetheless, I carried on to see if any change in the system state could be discerned from the re-seating. The TI was unmoved by my efforts and continued with the black screen and harsh tone. As I was working with the TI motherboard, and under unremembered circumstances. I took hold of the keyboard ribbon cable to attach to the motherboard and instead had it come away in my fingers. Catastrophe. The keyboard ribbon cable had sheared off from the solder points on the keyboard. I sadly realized that my efforts had probably already killed my patient, I honestly am not equipped or knowledgeable enough for computer surgery, and should no longer indulge in this pointless torture. I resolved to visit eBay and order another TI. A scan of ebay revealed that TIs generally would cost $50 after shipping. I decided to go ahead and order a lot of 2 that were both claimed to be working but were missing some accessories (only 1 power supply and no RF) and one was missing keycaps. I bid, I won, and I waited. Yesterday the TIs have arrived. I verified that they were indeed functional as stock units (although the busted keycap one seemed to have some video issues). I set about opening the better of the pair to transplant my F18A. Unscrew, open, unshield, pry. Everything proceeding smoothly I gently pried up the F18A from it's old host and I let out a cry of genuine anguish. One of the pins was gone (nothing else bent or damaged that I saw, just cruel fate), the F18A had been wounded in this latest action. What follows is my descent into pure madness and unmitigated stupidity. Faced with the missing pin, and desiring to install the F18A in the fresh patient IMMEDIATELY, I resolved to solder a replacement pin to the F18A board. Now some background, in years past some fool gifted me a inexpensive soldering iron as they knew my interest in vintage computing and thought I would find the tool useful. This tool would become a murder (of my poor TI) weapon. I have no training or formal education, and my past successful efforts with the tool have been only to solder wires together. A pin isn't that much different from a wire though? Of course not. So I cut a pin from a bit of discarded electronics I had laying around and proceeded to attempt to solder it to the board. What followed was an hour of trembling hands, cursing, fiddling, and jabbing a hot iron at the little board to try and get the pin to stick and not be crooked. Each passable attempt ended in failure, resulting in a black screen (but accompanied by the TI's lovely startup chirp). These efforts were interspersed with periodic sanity checks with the original VDP which I would insert to verify that I had not inflicted fatal injury. This continued until finally a measure of success. Video, but not that which brings joy, but a hideous abomination that shrivels the soul. The system powered on, but showed a title screen that was corrupted. The colors were wrong, the characters were garbled. Further desperate action improved nothing: from garbled screen, to blank blue screen, to black screen, to F18A ready screen, to garbled screen; round and round till I resolved myself and admitted defeat. However, the drama still had one final cruel twist of fate. I placed another F18A order and replaced the original VDP. Only this time instead of the grainy title screen I was greeted by doom's horrible screech. Black screen, blaring tone. Panic. I tried replacing the F18A. Black screen, blaring tone. Re-seat all the socketed chips. Black screen, blaring tone. Swap power supplies. Black screen, blaring tone. To my shame it seems I have killed another patient. Now I confess my eyes have shifted to my last misshapen TI to perhaps harvest its organs to fuel my mad designs. One potential slight glimmer of growth, I have decided to err on the side of wisdom and solicit my betters, and prevail upon their wisdom to see if there is any way I may undo this horror, or at least advice that I may prevent another one. Well? What say you? TL;DR - I am an idiot. Due to botched install+repair I'm soliciting help/advice in fixing my TIs. Black screens, blaring tones.
  7. With all the stuff I've lately, it got me thinking. It seems to me that a lot of things are available in the TI environment, that if brought together could really change the paradigm and set a new standard for our little ‘orphan’. The GROMS in the console for example, like Tursi showed us, with the 99/8 code floating around, we could ‘borrow’ the lower case code and replace what is already in the TI. If there are any new commands that can be ‘lifted and used’, all the better. We could possibly even change the default CYAN/BLACK screen to something a little bit more reasonable, possibly DARK BLUE/WHITE. Any of you have any ideas of something you would like to see changed or added to the basic console? It appears this may now be a possibility. Also, if there is a way to cram some extra stuff into the chips, and if the parts are available, possibly even a utility or two. (If you have not already done so, check out Tursi’s video, you’ll start drooling when you think of the possibilities he presents). Now there is that 512K UBER CART that will emulate GROM as well. Can you imagine a hacked version of Extended BASIC, or an Extended version of say RXB that had built-in routines to use and exploit the extended graphics modes of the F18A, while also staying backward compatible. Sweet!
  8. This weekend I finally got of my butt and installed the F18A in one of my many TI-99/4A consoles. While I was at it I also replaced the keyboard. Basically scrapping the keyboard from a non-working console. Now you have to know that I'm a total hardware noob, so the project took much longer as I intended. Basically I worked Saturday afternoon and Sunday morning to get the thing working. Actually it was the first time in my life I cracked open a TI-99/4A and I was very impressed with the size of the TMS9900 processor That is actually quite a beast! Putting the F18A in was easy, but drilling the matching holes in the case was a bit of challenge, but managed after all. Also case assembly was a bit more complicated as I expected (had to redo that a second time, because the sideport was a bit off and it prevented insertion of CF7+ and firehose cable). For disassembly and assembly I followed the excellent instructions on Mainbyte's site: http://www.mainbyte....onsole_dis.html Anyway, you can't believe the smile on my face when I saw the TI title screen appear I have the 1st jumper on the F18A off as I want the "4 sprites in a row"-limit, because I want the original games to run as usual. Also might do some stuff that runs on systems without the F18A so I like thing to be the same. I tried some games (Donkey Kong, Munchman and Warzone II) and the picture quality is just awesome!! Never played Warzone II in an emulator and it's just incredibly, seeing on a TI-99/4A that the fighter plane is made of multiple sprites. Don't have sound yet, most likely I'll get a small active PC-speaker that I'll mount on the rearside of the monitor. What did you guys do for getting sound. (Pictures please ) Thanks Matthew! It's an incredible piece of hardware you created. Something you can be very proud of! :thumbsup: :thumbsup: Here are some pictures:
  9. I spent much of the weekend opening my 99/4A, removing the cassette jack, installing F18a, placing VGA out in the place of the cassette jack, etc. Powered on and all was good. Fun last night and was online (telnet BBS) via WiFi232 and TIMXT this morning. Left the term prog loaded all day while I cleaned and rearranged the room so I can actually sit in front of the 99 to BBS properly, aaaand.... I noticed the text on TIMXT was no longer white but a muddy color. No keyboard response. I powered off and on -- no more video output. I can hear the TV power up, I hit 2 for FR99, can hear things as I navigate thru it and load a random cart and I see from its LED that it's loading a cart. But no video out. I tried it on a different VGA LCD, no video there either -- so it's not my screen. SO disappointing. Was so looking forward to BBSing in ANSI color on the TI here on my 45th birthday (today). Definite birthday downer. I really don't want to pull everything out again and open up the TI -- no energy for that again, not tonite. Any ideas out there? Is there a chance things are not fried? I now the TI needs the gfx chip to access memory, or I believe it does. So, it can't be fully fried. The ribbon cable is well secured, screwed into the case. No stress on it since I turned on this morning. https://twitter.com/blakespot/status/866030731725819904 Thanks. bp
  10. So as not to pollute the F18 info thread I'm starting this thread for random F18A related questions!
  11. --- Ω ---

    F18A VGA OUT

    From the album: --- Ω ---

    This is a close up of how I mounted the VGA cable connector on the back of my TI-99/4A. I figured I might as well label it as well. I know what it's for, but who knows, after I kick the bucket somebody might want to play...
  12. I just pimped my console with the F18A - works a treat! Here's TF running in 80 columns. Note how the block editor reconfigures itself to work in 80 columns - the "windowing" feature that is required in 40 column mode is disabled, and the whole 64 columns of the block are displayed. Neat. Parsec looks awesome on a VGA screen!
  13. I recently installed an F18A into my TI, and now I want to play, but I have a couple of small problems. 1) I do not have a ton of time to hunt for the 'BEST' program available. 2) I have no clue where the BEST old graphics can be found. So, since this forum has the largest gathering of TI-Gods and experts of every shape and form, I figured, why not just ask you guys and save a boat load of time! I have MacFlix - and no longer have any old graphics for it. (I'll probably junk it). I have MaxRLE - but I only have 3 B&W graphics. (I'll probably junk it too). What I want to do is be able to display the enhanced color graphics ON THE TI that Tursi's TMS9918 converter can output. Does anyone have a link to the program I'm looking for? Thanks!
  14. Think I read somewhere that the F18A also supports a 30 rows/80 character mode as opposed to the "normal" 24 x 80 columns mode. If that is true, can someone point me how the F18A VDP registers must be set to activate the mode? Thanks retroclouds *EDIT* It's 30 rows, not 31 rows.
  15. --- Ω ---

    F18A Installed

    From the album: --- Ω ---

    This is a close up view of the "F18A", a VGA upgrade to replace the TMS9918 video chip that worked with old style composite monitors or with the aid of an RF modulator a basic old-style TV set (NTSC format) on channel 3 or 4.
  16. I know some of you have been waiting for this moment, so I thought I'd do the neighborly thing let you all know... There a couple of F18A's available! >> AT THIS LINK << as of the time this post. I have no financial interest or affiliation with the seller; I just thought it would be nice to inform those who may be interested.
  17. The F18A is back in stock for anyone who was waiting on one. Please note that it might take me 4 to 5 days to fulfill orders and get them shipped, so please be patient if you order one. Thanks! http://codehackcreate.com/store
  18. I have been taking a small detour to learn more about GPL. There are some programs like the 80 column menu that make use of snippets of GPL code, and I've always wanted to better understand the language. To do this, I disassembled the adventure cartridge so that I could learn more about the language and also apply it to updating an old 'friend'. Best I can tell, all of the interpreter changes are in place and working. However, I do not understand how to read/write VDP addresses beyond 0x1fff. Source like this: 736B * 86 CLR [email protected]>03C1 736E * BF DST @>8356,>03C9 Is assembled/disassembled as this: 86 A3 C1 BF 56 03 C9 Notice how the [email protected]>03c1 address is turned into "A3C1"? Whereas the CPU address is >03C9 in both listings. I have to move ~15 bytes of buffered text and a few PABs to VDP>3600 or higher. The screenshot contains the bits of visible information I need to move. Is GPL limited to directly accessing only the first 4K of VDP without using indirect access?
  19. What is the username of the guy that came up with and made these cool video boards?
  20. Hello, I am happy to annouce this new release of MLC that was harder to develop as there is no F18A emulator... So I had to run between the living room and the old-compurter room with my CF card to test the software. Thanks a lot to Matthew for his patience and fast replies. Now MLC gives access to the GPU (TMS990 coprocessor) with intructions: $GPU section to define the assembly code GPURUN adr GPUWAKE GPUSLEEP GPUSTATE Access to the BitMap layer with instructions: BMLSET m adr BMLPLOT x y c BMLDRAWTO x y c BMLFILLRECT w h Access to the timer with instruction TIMER options options can be: CLEAR, READ, SUM, TOFLOAT RESET, RUN, LOAD, INC MLC with DSK images and full PDF english manual, (some videos too) can be downloaded here: (english) http://gtello.pagesp...ge.fr/mlc_e.htm (français) http://gtello.pagesp...ge.fr/mlc_f.htm Some pictures for the F18A installation here: (english) http://gtello.pagesp...e.fr/ti99_e.htm (français) http://gtello.pagesp...e.fr/ti99_f.htm Guillaume. :
  21. HELP! I've been working on this project: http://github.com/calphool/TRS80GS I've built 4 revisions of this board for my friend's TRS-80. I've had a heck of a time keeping the VDP chip working in a stable configuration. I had everything working for a while, and then suddenly it decided that it wouldn't work any more. I screwed around with the caps on the crystal (soldering on heavier leads and stuff), and eventually it blinked back to life, but now I only have a luminance signal (or at least the TV can't interpret the color part of the NTSC signal, so I get black-and-white). What I need is a very stable clock, and unfortunately there seem to be about a half dozen different examples of how people have set up the clock on this chip. Here are a few: I need something that just always works, not something that's flaky and subject to weird transient noise. The VDP and its clock divider are basically the heart of my board now, and if I can't get the clock working right, nothing works (the sound chips and UART chip use the divided clock signal that comes out of the VDP for their own clocks). What's the best way to make sure this clock is super stable and reliable? The Texas Instruments hardware design? It's got a bunch of stuff inline (including something it calls an "SR Inductor" that has no uH rating, and I'm a little confused by). The ChromaTRS design? It's got some inverter gates attached to the crystal (though it doesn't specify the value for the resistor it's using). I've been using variations on each revision, with the most recent being the one from Byte magazine, which is flaky as all get out.
  22. I got my F18A a little while ago and I've been waiting for some free time to get it installed and try it out, but I figured I'd ask the forum if anyone has any particular tips or best practices for mounting and installation. Any particular VGA bracket mounting location better than others, best way to modify the case, etc?
  23. As mentioned elsewhere, I've been building a collection of F18A / slideshow99 compatible pix using Tursi's little convertor proggy (which is a lot of fun to fiddle with). And so here's a small batch.... I was going to categorize them, but I'm way too lazy to be that organized. That being said, I have created a separate disk of NLL (National Lacrosse League) logos (past and present) since, as always, I become completely obsessed/stressed-out at this time of year as the post-season draws ever closer... I know, I know, what kind of Canadian puts ANYTHING above hockey??? Well, I was raised in a Lacrosse town, so I like my hockey to have BALLS! (Although congrats to the Leafs for making it into the Playoffs). I've attached a single ZIP file for those who do not use a CF7/nanoPEB, so that you can use HDX, Floppies or your storage medium of choice. If you do use CF's I have also attached 5 separate CF7 discs (each contains 21 images). All but two or three of the images are converted from bitmaps I have on my PC, so many will be instantly familiar, but I think it's safe to say, this is their first appearance on a 4A. If there is already a thread where we are sharing these (besides the sample batch in the Flashrom99 thread), I ask that these get moved there and point me there for future reference. But if this is the first such post of this kind, then what's up with that??? I haven't looked, but I'd wager there are forum repositories of Spectrum512 images in the Atari forums! F18A_PICS1.zip NLLPIX_1.dsk PEBOPIX_1.dsk PEBOPIX_2.dsk PEBOPIX_3.dsk PEBOPIX_4.dsk
  24. So, a fresh batch of F18As went out recently. I managed to grab 2. I've upgraded my working console with one, and then this next weekend, I'm hoping the second will just fix what looks like bad VDP ram in my second console. The first thing that struck me, is that now all the emulators look more like real iron But my favorite new software feature is 80 column editor in fbForth. My next favorite new thing is how it makes this old TI look like college era Sega when you run the ALEX KIDD cartridge demo. What is your favorite app/feature/aspect that changes regular real iron usage of your TI?
  25. Thought I'd post a few pictures to show that the F18A can indeed be fitted neatly into the console: This first pic shows the F18A VGA connector fitted into the case of the console. It is necessary to remove the steel support from the VGA connector that is supplied with the F18A, and also the black plastic shroud around the VGA connector pins. Use a sharp knife to cut away the plastic to make a snug fit, then drill two holes for the VGA connector screws to hold the connector in place on the case. De-solder the original analogue video out connector from the mother board. You can also see the cartridge cover has been removed to expose the grille in the top of the console. A 45mm Mylar speaker fits just great. Use two little spots of Uhu glue to glue it in place: This picture shows the VGA connector in-situ. Note that the UPPER case is cut and drilled, not lower case! Make sure to use washers and a split washer to hold the nut tight; it's a pain in the ass when they come loose and you have to open the console up to tighten them again: Cartridge cover back in place. Solder the cables to the speaker before you put the cover back on! I took the power supply for the internal amplifier (a kit from Velleman) from the mother board. As can be seen, I've tapped into the +12V supply: Here's the F18A taking pride of place. Obviously the 9929 has been removed! Take care to fold the video cable so that it exits towards the back of the circuit board. Re-assembling the motherboard case. The F18A fits inside the steel case just fine. You can see the amplifier, which as yet to be stuck down. It's very small, measuring about 35mm by 45mm. The amplifier is stuck to the 'roof' of the console, just to the side of the joystick port. It fits in there just perfect, the steel case on the mother board doesn't foul it! All re-assembled - all fits together just fine! The VGA connector looks quite neat and is the only clue that something different lurks within! Oh, and the speaker! If you have some thin black plastic anti-static gauze (the type that is supplied with ICs sometimes) then you put that between the grille and the speaker to cover the speaker up. The final test: Beautiful crisp display on my 1024x768 LCD VGA monitor: The amplifier works fine too, and is as loud as hell! It's rather noisy though; there is an awful lot of noise picked up - you can 'hear' the 9900 processing. Of course, speech also comes from the internal speaker now, too. I'm going to add a rotary volume control to the side of the console next. I took the audio output from the original audio out at the video connector. I understand that at this point, the audio signal has already been amplified a little for sending on to the UHF modulator. I'm open to suggestions as to alternative locations that I could pick up the audio signal from (somewhere less "noisy" I hope). Maybe I can just connect directly to the audio out pin on the sound chip? My next little project is to add a two-stage flip-flop to the clock input on the sound chip to drop the sound by two octaves to give proper bass notes, giving a much more usable audio range. Mark
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