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I decided to see how much speed I could squeeze out of a character based raycaster with only 32 columns. The result can be seen here: https://youtu.be/Y_WR974T_Ak You can also run it yourself using one of the attached files. The frame rate is 15-20 FPS, so this is quite within the limits of a playable game. The question is whether it's too ugly? The algorithm is a simple raycaster where reality is sacrificed for speed. The world is divided into 128 directions, and for each direction I pre-calculate a unit vector (cos(a), sin(a)) in Java and store it as two 8.8 fixed point numbers, i.e. multiply floating point number by 256, round, and store in a 16-bit word. So the output from the Java program is a list of 128 x values and 128 y values as TI-99/4A assembly DATA statements. The player's position is also stored as two 8.8 fixed point numbers (x and y) and the player's direction is stored as one of the 128 directions. For each frame we cast 32 rays from the player's position, each in a different direction, with the player's current direction at the center, so from direction - 16 to direction + 15. Each ray start with the player's position, and we keep adding the unit vector in the given direction until we hit a wall or give up. So for each iteration we need to check what the map contains at the given position. To do this as quickly as possible we make the map width 256 so the map address can be calculated as 256 * y + x + base, which it's very fast to do in assembly. So the central loop of the raycaster looks like this, where (r0,r1) contains the current (x,y) position, (r3,r4) contains directional unit vector, and r8 is a counter for max iterations: cast_ray_1: a r3,r0 ; x += xdir a r4,r1 ; y += ydir movb r1,r6 ; y -> r6 msb movb r0,*r5 ; x -> r6 lsb (for a bit of speed, r5 contains the address of r6 lsb) movb @map(r6),r7 ; Get map entry jne cast_ray_2 ; Not zero is a hit dec r8 ; Distance count down jne cast_ray_1 ; Loop until we give up The value of r8 after the loop determines the distance we have traveled, and the value of r7 determines what we have hit. From the distance we can calculate the height of the wall at the given screen column. The formula is something like max_height / distance, but I use a look-up table. Calculating distances from a single point is resulting in a fish-eye view of the world, as you can see in the demo. A more sophisticated algorithm would calculate the perpendicular distance to the view plane instead. I think it should be possible to fix this without sacrificing speed by having an additional correction look-up table. We now have a height for the walls for each of the 32 screen columns. For each column we want to draw a strip of sky, then a strip of wall, and finally a strip of floor. To do this most efficiently I have pre-drawn the columns at different wall heights in Magellan. That also makes it easy to add the primitive 'textures' you see on the demo. Drawing columns one by one is bad for performance because you have to set up the VDP write address for each row, so instead we set up the write address once and then draw one byte from each column in turn. To fetch the bytes to draw we set up a pointer for each column that point to the right column data. The drawing loop looks like this: upload_screen_loop: li r1,column_ptrs li r2,screen_width upload_screen_loop_1: mov *r1,r0 ; Get column pointer movb *r0+,*r15 ; Write byte to VDP (r15 contains VDPWD) mov r0,*r1+ ; Write pointer back dec r2 jne upload_screen_loop_1 ; Next column dec r3 jne upload_screen_loop ; Next row rt Finally, to push the last bit of performance out of the TI-99/4A, I run the two central loops from scratch pad RAM. The code is on GitHub: https://github.com/Rasmus-M/raycaster raycaster.dsk raycaster.rpk raycaster8.bin See also:
Hello! this is my first thread on the Atari age forums, inspired by another thread made about 7 years ago by grafixbmp(which sadly nothing happened besides a few concepts and it has been 6 years since anyone but me posted something on it). but I hope this thread will go past the discussion phase and maybe even accomplish a hovertank style game!
Since this is a prototype bus stuffing driver you can only run this bin on an actual harmony cart. Rather than having a full frame buffer it only stores the color and height for each of the 40 columns. There should be plenty of resources left to make an actual game. The quantity of sprites will be severely limited though because the only way to reposition them will be via HMOVE. Joe's demo was used as a reference for some of the fixed point math implementation. Latest Version: raycaster-2018-6-15.bin - Fixed vertical bar glitches Previous Versions: Raycaster_2018_06_13.bin